Acid Rain

10:34 AM Edit This 0 Comments »
Hello there,

We meet, this week..I have to talk about environmental problems..Actually, my full theme was..Water Resources and Environmental Problems but on the week 6th August-12th August, I have explained about the water resources and, I have chosen the environmental problems as this week issue..And guess what, the lucky issue was..ACID RAIN and GLOBAL WARMING!!!

For your information,the growing global demand for energy - especially energy from fossil fuels - has major environmental impacts. Two examples are the problem of acid rain, and the (much more serious) problem of global warming.

Acid rain is rain that has a higher than normal acid level (that is, a low pH). Acid rain may contain weak solutions of sulphuric, carbonic and nitric acids. Where it falls over a prolonged period it can cause damage to the environment.
Natural sources of these chemicals include volcanoes. However it is likely that human activity also leads to acid rain. Scientists believe that the main culprits are vehicle exhausts and the gases given off by power stations. Power stations that burn fossil fuels with a high concentration of sulphur - such as some untreated types of coal - are particularly responsible.

Without any further, I would like to list some important effects of acid rain. Some of the problems attributed to acid rain include:
  • Trees lose some of the protection in their leaves, leaving them more at risk from frost and diseases.
  • Tree roots may also become stunted, so they can't take up as many nutrients.
  • Soils lose some of their nutrients.
  • Increasing acid levels may cause problems for aquatic animals and plants.
  • Some fish may have trouble breathing for example. Acid rain may dissolve the stonework and mortar of buildings causing structural problems of buildings.
How the greenhouse effect works

It's thought that the build-up of greenhouse gases impacts on global temperature in two ways:

1. The gases allow more of the sun's rays to enter the atmosphere. Some solar radiation is still reflected back into space by the outer parts of the atmosphere, but it's believed the amount reflected back is gradually reducing.

2. At the same time, the greenhouse gases absorb more of the solar radiation that is reflected back from the earth's surface - trapping heat and keeping it in the atmosphere. Of course the ability of the atmosphere to capture the sun's warmth is essential for life on earth. But if significantly MORE warmth is being captured, this is bad news for the planet.

Another group of greenhouse gases includes the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs for short). CFCs have been responsible for depleting the ozone layer as they attack and destroy ozone molecules..
  • The ozone layer is a high level layer of gas in the stratosphere.
  • The ozone helps to keep out harmful ultra-violet rays which cause sun-burn on human skin and damage plants.
  • CFCs have been used in aerosols, such as hairspray cans, fridges and in making foam plastics.
  • The resulting ozone holes let harmful ultra-violet radiation in and adding to the problems of the Greenhouse effect and global warming.
  • CFCs were banned in many countries in the mid-1990s after it was found that they were breaking up the earth's ozone.
  • Scientists say the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica could disappear within 50 years

While, the implication of the global warming is very serious..such as,

  • Global warming could melt the world's ice caps and glaciers, leading to an increase in sea levels. Some scientists estimate that over the next hundred years sea levels could rise by between 10cm and 90cm - making many coastal areas around the world uninhabitable.
  • Global warming could also affect the weather patterns, leading to more droughts, flooding and extreme weather, such as hurricanes.
  • In Britain we are largely unaffected by the dangerous weather of the tropics, such as hurricanes or severe droughts. But some climatologists argue that the UK climate is changing as a result of global warming - with the possibility of more frequent floods, water shortages, and extreme weather conditions.

Energy efficiency

With energy consumption rising, it is important that industry, transportation and consumers in their homes use of energy more efficiently, so less is wasted.

  • We can all help by making changes to our lifestyles and our houses - for example by
    walking, cycling, or using public transport rather than fossil-fuel powered cars
  • Reducing the number of aircraft journeys taken (especially short-haul flights)
    using smaller more energy-efficient cars
  • Switching off lights, power sockets, phone chargers and TVs when not in use
    recycling and reusing plastics and oil-based products
  • Using energy-efficient light-bulbs and rechargeable batteries
  • insulating house rooves, blocking drafts, and using double-glazing and more efficient heating systems
  • Considering introducing solar panels, or switching to an electricity supplier that supplies green electricity

Okay then, I think that's all for now..hope to see you in the next theme which is, Eduction and Learning.


Islam And Cultural Imperatively

9:54 AM Edit This 0 Comments »
What Is Culture?

It is commonplace to identify "culture" with refined taste or "high culture" like the fine arts and humanities. In this vein, Matthew Arnold spoke of culture as "the best that has been known and said in the world" and "the history of the human spirit." However, culture as a modern anthropological concept and as treated in this paper refers to the entire integrated pattern of human behavior and is immeasurably broader than its highest expressions. (4) Beyond what is purely instinctive and unlearned, culture governs everything about us and even molds our instinctive actions and natural inclinations. It is culture that makes us truly human, separating people from animals, which frequently exhibit learned behavior but lack our capacity for the creation and adaptation of new cultural form.

Culture weaves together the fabric of everything we value and need to know--beliefs, morality, expectations, skills, and knowledge--giving them functional expression by integrating them into effectual customary patterns. Culture is rooted in the world of expression, language, and symbol. But it relates also to the most routine facets of our activities--like dress and cooking--and extends far beyond the mundane into religion, spirituality, and the deepest dimensions of our psyches. Culture includes societal fundamentals like the production of food and distribution of goods and services, the manner in which we manage business, banking, and commerce; the cultivation of science and technology; and all branches of learning, knowledge, and thought. Family life and customs surrounding birth, marriage, and death immediately come to mind as obvious cultural elements, but so too are gender relations, social habits, skills for coping with life's circumstances, toleration and cooperation or the lack of them, and even societal superstructures like political organization. A working democracy, for example, is as much the fruit of particular cultural values and civic habits as it is the outgrowth of constitutions or administrative bodies. In our mosques, schools, and homes, many day-to-day aggravations are patent examples of cultural discord and confusion. Often, they have little to do with Islam per se but everything to do with the clash of old world attitudes and expectations--often authoritarian and patriarchal--with the very different human complexities, realities, and needs of our society.

Respecting Other Cultures: A Supreme Prophetic Sunna

The Prophet Muhammad and his Companions were not at war with the world's cultures and ethnicities but entertained an honest, accommodating, and generally positive view of the broad social endowments of other peoples and places. The Prophet and his Companions did not look upon human culture in terms of black and white, nor did they drastically divide human societies into spheres of absolute good and absolute evil. Islam did not impose itself--neither among Arabs or non-Arabs--as an alien, culturally predatory worldview. Rather, the Prophetic message was, from the outset, based on the distinction between what was good, beneficial, and authentically human in other cultures, while seeking to alter only what was clearly detrimental. Prophetic law did not burn and obliterate what was distinctive about other peoples but sought instead to prune, nurture, and nourish, creating a positive Islamic synthesis.

Much of what became the Prophet's sunna (Prophetic model) was made up of acceptable pre--Islamic Arab cultural norms, and the principle of tolerating and accommodating such practices--among Arabs and non-Arabs alike in all their diversity--may be termed a supreme, overriding Prophetic sunna. In this vein, the noted early jurist, Abu Yusuf, understood the recognition of good, local cultural norms as falling under the rubric of the sunna. The fifteenth-century Granadan jurisprudent Ibn al-Mawaq articulated a similar outlook and stressed, for example, that it was not the purpose of Prophetic dress codes to impinge upon the cultural integrity of non-Arab Muslims, who were at liberty to develop or maintain their own distinctive dress within the broad parameters of the sacred law. (6)

The Qur'an enjoined the Prophet Muhammad to adhere to people's sound customs and usages and take them as a fundamental reference in legislation: "Accept [from people] what comes naturally [for them]. Command what is customarily [good]. And turn away from the ignorant [without responding in kind]." (7) Ibn Attiyya, a renowned early Andalusian jurist and Qur'anic commentator, asserted that the verse not only upheld the sanctity of indigenous culture but granted sweeping validity to everything the human heart regards as sound and beneficial, as long as it is not clearly repudiated in the revealed law. For classical Islamic jurists in general, the verse was often cited as a major proof-text for the affirmation of sound cultural usage, and it was noted that what people generally deem as proper tends to be compatible with their nature and environment, serving essential needs and valid aspirations.

The Cultural Imperative in Classical Islamic Jurisprudence Classical

Islamic law did not speak of culture per se, since it is a modern behavioral concept. Instead, the law focused on what we may call culture's most tangible and important components: custom (al-'urf) and usage (al-'ada), which all legal schools recognized as essential to the proper application of the law, although differing on definitions and their measure of authority. (10) In Islamic jurisprudence, al-'urf and al-'ada connote those aspects of local culture which are generally recognized as good, beneficial, or merely harmless. In no school did respect for culture amount to blanket acceptance. (11) Local culture had to be appraised in terms of the transcendent norms of Islamic law, which meant the rejection of abhorrent practices like the ancient Mediterranean custom of "honor killings"--now reasserting itself in the context of contemporary cultural breakdown--or, at the other extreme, the sexual promiscuity prevalent in modern culture.

One of Islamic law's five universal maxims declared: "Cultural usage shall have the weight of law." (12) To reject sound custom and usage was not only counterproductive, it brought excessive difficulty and unwarranted harm to people. Another well-known principle of Islamic jurisprudence emphasized this fact and advised: "Cultural usage is second nature," by which it implied that it is as difficult for people to go against their established customs as it is for them to defy their instinctive natures. Consequently, wise application of the law required broad accommodation of local norms, which should be altered or obstructed only when absolutely necessary. Being attentive to local norms implies meeting people halfway and leads necessarily to broad cultural resemblance. In this regard, Islamic jurisprudence distinguished between subservient imitation of others (tashabbuh), which reflects a problematic sense of one's own identity and was generally regarded as forbidden or reprehensible, and the mere fact of outward resemblance (mushabaha), which was required, recommendable, or simply neutral as the case may be. (13)

I admit, certainly..I copied and paste this informative article from the website that I searched, but it does not mean I did not read and take this topic seriously..I just dont have time to write it back..
Personally, I found this article quite interesting and I chose the best paraghraph that suits to this blog..Last but not least, enjoy reading!

Special task, MY Speech!

12:01 AM Edit This 0 Comments »
Assalamualaikum wbt..
Special good evening I wish to everyone.

Today, I, Nurfarahin Binti Baharul'ulum, would like to give a speech about my dreams and my resolutions to the becoming 5o years MERDEKA celebration.

I have a dream for my people to be able to depend on their own...

I have a dream for my people to never let the other people overtake our specialities and chances..

I have a dream for my people that everybody is well-educated and beeing empowered by their ownself leading to a great globalisation towards the positive progress developement.

I have those dreams!

As for my resolutions for the becoming Merdeka Day 50 years celebration, I hope my country will become such a respective developement country. Together we united, let us together building the Human Capital as we all have the responsibilty to fulfill the vission and mission 2020.

Last but not least, I would like to share a quote which is,

"We are still masters of our fate,
We are still captains of our goals"

So, there's nothing impossible! Together we united towards excellent!!!

Pressure n Pressure n Pressure..

11:14 PM Edit This 0 Comments »
Assalamualaikum wbt..

Today, my roommates had sense something different is happening to me. I surprised at the moment but soon I realized that what they have said were absolutely true. I am not like I am supposed to be. I played my role weirdly. Actually, to be specific..I am under pressure!

So, all the day I was thinking that I must do something before many friends can realize it or even worse..I will be affected much!

Some common signs of too much stress include(which I got lately):
  • Increased irritability
  • Heightened sensitivity to criticism
  • Signs of tension, such as nail-biting
  • Difficulty getting to sleep and early morning waking
  • Indigestion
  • Loss of concentration

It's important to act to relieve damaging stress before it affects your physical or mental health. So, I decided to deal with my stress positively and find that some ways are essential to me. There are:

  • Spend the day doing only relaxing things that make you feel good.
  • Accept offers of practical help.
  • Do one thing at a time - don't keep piling stress on stress.
  • Know my own limits - don't be too competitive or expect too much.
  • Talk to someone
  • Let off steam in a way that causes no harm (shout, scream or hit a pillow)
  • Walk away from stressful situations
  • Try to spend time with people who are rewarding rather than critical and judgmental
  • Practise slow breathing using the lower part of the lungs
  • Use relaxation techniques- such as yoga and etcetera.

I really hope that I can manage my stress well and beeing an attentive and active in class so that I will not let any important things slip by. Moreover, the mid term exam is just around the corner, so it freaks me out!

Please do wish me all the best and see you later in the next coming issue..'Different Aspect of Culture'.

Natural Resources, What Is It About?

10:12 PM Edit This 0 Comments »
Hello there,
For this issue, I would like to share something that I won't so care about..but, suddenly I realized that I should care about this issue because day by day, it becomes worst. So, precisely I would like to talk about natural resources..what is it about and the importance to balance it for future needs.

Enjoy reading!

Natural Resources are actually a natural process occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified..I mean a natural form. A natural resource's value rests in the amount of the material available and the demand for the certain material. The latter is determined by its usefulness to production. A commodity is generally considered a natural resource when the primary activities associated with it are extraction and purification, as opposed to creation. Thus, mining, petroleum extraction, fishing, hunting, and forestry are generally considered natural-resource industries, while agriculture is not.

Natural resources are often classified
  • renewable
  • flow
  • non-renewable

Renewable resources are generally living resources such as fish, reindeer, coffee, and forests, which can restock themselves if they are not over-harvested. Renewable resources can restock themselves and be used indefinitely if they are used sustainably. Once renewable resources are consumed at a rate that exceeds their natural rate of replacement, the standing stock will diminish and eventually run out. The rate of sustainable use of a renewable resource is determined by the replacement rate and amount of standing stock of that particular resource.

Flow renewable resources are very much like renewable resources, only they do not need regeneration, unlike renewable resources. Flow renewable resources include wind, tides and solar radiation.

While, non-living renewable natural resources include soil and water.

Resources can also be classified on the basis of their origin as

  • biosis
  • abiosis

Biotic resources are derived from animals and plants..I mean the living world. Abiotic resouces are derived from the non-living world such as land, water, and air. Mineral and power resources are also abiotic resources some of which are derived from nature.

Balancing the world's resources.

An increasing global population needs more resources - at the very basic, there are needs for healthy uncontaminated food and water supplies, shelter, clothing and good health. Resources are also required to make all the things that we use in our daily lives, from the oil that is used to make plastic, to the wood and metal that is used to make furniture.

So, it is a difficult to manage the world's natural resources when there are conflicting demands upon them.

  1. The environment should be preserved.
  2. Resources need to be retained for future generations to enjoy.
  3. Humans need to continue to make and do the things that allow them to live comfortably.

In order to conserve natural resources for future generations, sustainable management of the natural environment is necessary. Alternative resources might be developed in order to ease the strain on finite resources. However alternative resources can be expensive and take time to develop. Existing resources could be used more efficiently, to prevent finite resources being used up so quickly.

From some information that I have gathered through the websites, here are a number of ways in which we can help limit the damage caused by humans to the environment:

  1. Recycling resources that have already been used is popular and reduces waste. Many people recycle their used cans, bottles and paper. Making new aluminium cans out of old ones reduces our need to use fresh resources in their production.
  2. Limiting the amount of carbon emission generated through industrial and domestic use of fuels can assist in reducing levels of pollution. This can limit environmental problems such as global warming and acid rain.
  3. Resource substitution is another sustainable way in which resources can be managed. Renewable resources can be used instead of finite resources. Electric power can be produced with a renewable energy resource such as tidal, wind or solar power instead of fossil fuels.
  4. Sustainable resource management can help ensure that the use of resources within a biome does not cause an imbalance in its abiotic and biotic systems. Increasingly, sustainable practices are being encouraged in order to preserve animal and plant life for the benefit of life of future generations. An example of sustainable development is eco-tourism. Tourists are able to enjoy areas of natural beauty without requiring over-development that might harm the environment.

I think that's all for now, too long I think. I really didn't mean to talk much. I am so sorry if the fact I was trying to share maybe wrong..but, I am confident enough that it was all true. Hehe..

Before I end my blog, I would like to express my special thanks to Mr J ( my class rep) because of recommending me lots of useful websites related to this issue. Last but not least, have a nice day ahead!


Water Conservation, We Conserve Together

9:13 PM Edit This 0 Comments »
Seen from outer space, the world we live in looks almost like a globe of water. Yes, the earth is indeed covered by a lot of water. Unfortunately, the water filling much of the surface of our beloved planet can hardly be used due to the high level of mineral content in it, especially salt.

Taken directly, seawater is almost totally useless; it can neither be used for agriculture nor farming, nor is it suitable for home consumption. A few industries do use seawater for mineral extraction but it is usually an expensive affair to process seawater. In Singapore for instance, seawater is being treated for crude use like flushing,but it is generally still unsuitable for human consumption.

The fresh water that we used daily and often take for granted therefore comes from different sources. For a tropical country like ours where rainfall is abundant, water can be tapped from natural springs and rivers after a downpour. As rainwater seeps underground, there is also the possibility of extracting underground water for our usage.

Since rivers and underground water remain two of the most important sources of usable water for us, it is crucial that we ensure that these sources are renewable. As water is a source of life for all of us, we are responsible for ensuring that our rivers are not polluted. Authorities should also play their part in ensuring that all water catchment areas are not carelessly developed as this might directly reduce our water resources.

Closer to home, we should also try our best to conserve water. We should not take it for granted that water will always be available. Water rationing in various parts of our capital city during El Nino phenomenon was a clear signal that even the tropics, we can run out of water to use.

Simple steps can be taken at home to reduce wastage. For instance, we can fill a bucket with sufficient water to wash our car rather than use a hose. Water from our washing machine can be used to water plants instead of beeing simply drained away.

Water is indeed an important aspect of our lives. In this country, we can take three showers a day because water is in constant supply. In other countries where rainfall is luxury and dryness is the norm, water is precious commodity that has to be used carefully.

Nevertheless, we too must not take water for granted. We must use it carefully to ensure that we continue to enjoy the availibility of clear, fresh water. The most important thing is people all over the world not only have to share water as the greatest world's resources, but we have to conserve it together!

I hope you enjoyed reading these theme issue, I really hope the purpose of writing it will be useful and motivate us to be grateful and responsible. Special thanks to Audrey Lim's article which I have read related to this topic, it was really helpful though. Last but not least, hope to see you on the next upcoming issue; Money(Financial Matters) and Natural Resources.